Study Philosophy of Physics

What is Philosophy of Physics?

To start with the obvious: philosophy of physics is the part of philosophy of science that deals with the physical sciences. While this is a highly specialized area in philosophy, it is a very broad and diverse field in and of itself. Works in philosophy of physics can be more or less technical, more or less historical, more or less metaphysical. Some use results from physics to address philosophical questions. Others use philosophical expertise to address problems that originate in physics. Some focus on a particular area of physics, such as quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, or general relativity. Others deal with broader questions, such as: What is space? What is time? What are probabilities? What are laws of nature?

While the physical sciences themselves can be the subject of investigation, many philosophers regard physics as our best guide to the nature of reality. This doesn’t mean that philosophy has nothing to contribute, but that questions about the world should be informed by our best scientific theories. In the latter sense, philosophy of physics stands less in the tradition of general philosophy of science and more in the tradition of natural philosophy. Indeed, a big part of the philosophy of physics is interdisciplinary work in foundations of physics. This is where the lines between philosophy, theoretical and mathematical physics can get most blurry.

My personal belief is that philosophy, physics, and even mathematics are but different paths to the same goal: understanding the world on the most fundamental level. Philosophy of physics is just a continuation of physics by different means. Many of the questions that I’m dealing with in my research — What is quantum mechanics actually about? What is the origin of the arrow of time in our universe? — used to be part of physics. That they have been largely “outsourced” to the philosophy department is partly the result of our hyper-specialized era in science, partly due to a changed culture in physics (that I find unfortunate). Philosophers, in general, bring a different skillset to the table than scientists trained in solving mathematical equations or conducting experiments, but this doesn’t mean that the problems they are working on are somehow less serious, less substantial, or less scientific.

What to study

Most people working in philosophy of physics today have an education in philosophy, but there is an increasing number of researchers who have transitioned from physics or mathematics or hold a double-degree.

In my experience, it is hard to make a career in philosophy of physics without a Ph.D. in philosophy. On the other hand, you should obviously know some physics if you want to philosophize about it. Good technical (i.e. mathematical) knowledge doesn’t make you a good philosopher of physics, but a lack of relevant technical understanding usually makes you a bad one. You don’t have to be able to solve huge integrals — actually, this will rarely help at all — but you should feel comfortable enough around a mathematical equation to appreciate its content and eventually be able to read a physical research paper. For a professional philosopher of physics, it’s not enough to engage with physics on the level of popular science books (although there are some great popular science books out there, see below).

Maybe you are talented enough to learn all the physics and mathematics you need in self-study, but taking some good classes in university is usually worthwhile if you have the chance. If your education so far has focussed on more traditional areas of philosophy — logic, epistemology, metaphysics, even ancient Greek philosophy — you can put this to good use in the philosophy of physics. In my experience, however, it’s easier to read up on the philosophical background than on physics and mathematics.

Should I change from physics/mathematics to philosophy?

I have transitioned from mathematical physics into philosophy of physics because I feel that this is where I can best tackle the fundamental questions I’m passionate about. Unfortunately, it’s hard to do foundations in a physics department these days. I also appreciate the fact that I can take a broader view on physics and engage with different subjects, rather than specializing in a particular technique to squeeze as much out of it as possible. I have not regretted changing into philosophy, so far.

Do not change into philosophy because you think it’s better for your career. Making a career in academia is always hard, and there is usually more money (meaning more positions) in fields that are closer to practical applications. And outside of academia, a degree in physics or mathematics is generally worth more on the job market than a philosophy degree.

Do not change into philosophy because you think it’s easier. Bad philosophy is easy, good philosophy is hard. Philosophy of physics is not a hobby but a serious field of research with professional standards. In particular, doing good work in foundations of physics requires just as much specialized skill and expertise as any other discipline in physics. Don’t think you’ll be a good philosopher just because you’ve been a decent physicist. Don’t even think you’ll be a decent philosopher just because you’ve been a great physicist. Go into the field because you respect it, not because you don’t.

Where to study

Some universities offer graduate programs that specialize in philosophy of science or even philosophy of physics. This is by no means the only path into the field, but certainly a good one.

If you want to do a Ph.D. in philosophy of physics, people matter more than institutions. Look for a group or supervisor with a strong research focus on philosophy of physics, preferably on the particular subject you’re interested in. can be a good starting point if you’re not familiar with the academic landscape.

The newly-founded John Bell Institute for the Foundations of Physics is dedicated to creating an international research community for the foundations of physics. Check the website to find leading experts in the field.

Research groups and graduate programs

Here is a selection of universities with a specialized program or research focus in philosophy of physics. (The list is certainly incomplete, not being included does not indicate a negative opinion).





  • Columbia University. Has an MA program “Philosophical Foundations of Physics and regular philosophy of physics courses on the graduate and undergraduate level.
  • University of Pittsburgh. Has one of the top-rated philosophy faculties in the world and a department dedicated to the History and Philosophy of Science.
  • UC San Diego. Has a Science Studies program and a strong research focus on philosophy of science and philosophy of physics.
  • UC Irvine. Has a department of Logic and Philosophy of Science and a strong research group for the philosophy of physics.
  • Rutgers. Has one of the top-rated philosophy departments in the world with many leading experts in philosophy of science and philosophy of physics.
  • NYU (Prof. Maudlin). Has one of the top-rated philosophy departments in the world with one of the leading experts in foundations of physics.

What to read

The following is not a complete reading list for future students, but a very short (and subjective) selection of my favorite books on foundations of physics that should be accessible to non-experts and give a taste of the discipline at its best. (Links to

Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

Philosophy of Space and Time / Statistical Mechanics

Popular Science

Online Resources

More questions? Feel free to contact me or leave a comment.

38 thoughts on “Study Philosophy of Physics”

  1. this was very helpful, thank you . but what if i want the best of both worlds ? meaning that i would love to study philosophy of physics for the sake of it AND physics and participating in experiments ..being in the lab and so on . what to pursue first in order to grantee them both on the way ? i want to do physics having in mind the philosophy behind what i am doing .i am a software engineer making a career change and willing to have a BS.c all over again for the sake of this passion of trying to have answers. what programs a suitable for me ?

    • Hi Safaa, glad you found the post helpful. I think lab work is pretty far away from philosophy of physics. It is always good to be mindful of foundations and understand what you’re actually doing in an experiment, but career-wise, I’m not sure if there are a lot of synergies. You could, however, look for a physics program where you can minor in philosophy. There is even such a thing as experimental philosophy and computational philosophy. I am no expert in that, but with your background, it might be worth looking into it.

  2. Ok that was helpful.
    Actually I’m doing a PhD in expermintal physics (mainly in magnetic materials), and I’m not thinking about any carrer change but I would like to have a degree in the philosophy of physics as well.
    So my question for you, from your academic experience, is there any online on- distance program where one can enroll ?
    Also is it possible to get a master degree in philosophy directly without having a BA!?

    • Same question here. I am doing a Ph.D. in nanotechnology but I am really fascinated by the philosophy of physics as well and I would like to do some online/distance course to acquire the basis of that field!

      • Unfortunately, I don’t know of any proper online courses (which is not to say that there definitely aren’t any). But there are at least some good lectures, interviews, etc. You can just look on YouTube for “Tim Maudlin” or “David Albert”, for instance. Or check out the media section on the website of the John Bell institute. Sean Carroll is not a philosopher, but he has an interesting podcast that often goes into foundational questions:

  3. Hi Sir, before I start with my questions, I think it would be appropriate to give you a description of my background. Currently, I am pursuing a master’s degree in Physics, and as I am immersing more and more into the subject, I am getting dissatisfied. Because rather than understanding nature and bending it for exploitation, I am more interested in knowing the world the way it is. I have always been troubled with questions like “How should negative dimensional volumes look like (I do have some unusual imagination about that)?” Anyways, rather than being interested in calculating trajectories of particles I am more interested in questions like, ‘what was the probability of a particle to follow that particular trajectory and what was the reason that it chose that path out of all others possible etc. Is future deterministic?
    But slowly, I have started feeling that the way physics is being done (at least in my place) is not quenching my curiosity. People are so fixated in solving the so-called problems of physics and achieving milestones it seems nobody is much interested in the fundamental questions of nature like the nature of the quantum world and its ambiguous interpretations.
    So, I am at this crossroad in my life where I am perplexed whether to keep pursuing physics further and get a PhD or take a chance with philosophy. I stumbled by your blog randomly (total coincidence) and I am fascinated by this interdisciplinary branch “Philosophy of Physics”.
    So my questions to you are:-
    1)As an expert in the field, does philosophy of physics tackles with such problems?
    2)If yes, then what should be the first step towards such a transition?
    3)Which universities provide proper course work?
    4)Should I pursue a master’s in philosophy again after completing the current one(Physics)?

    • Hi Pallab, I understand where you’re coming from. I had similar feelings that most of current physics is not addressing the questions that I’m really fascinated about. For the topics you mention, I believe you would indeed find more “open minds” in the philosophy of physics or philosophy of science. But this doesn’t mean that in philosophy anything goes. You would still have to familiarize yourself with the pertinent literature (e.g., about probabilities, determinism, etc.) and try to connect with the research that has been going on in the field.

      To your questions: Some philosophy of science programs are mentioned in the post, as well as some books that may be a good starting point. You could also look out for interdisciplinary summer schools (such as the events we are posting on this website).

      You can pursue a second master after graduating in physics, but if you feel prepared enough, I would go directly for a Ph.D.

  4. Hi! Thank you for this post, it was helpful.

    I have a Physics Bachelor’s degree, and right now I’m writing my final essay for my Master’s which is on Science Education. In both degrees , I found out that my main research interest is Philosophy of Physics, or even more, what Tim Maudlin calls “Foundation Physics”. My thesis in the BSc and the MSc are on a philosophy of science subject ( phlisophical aspects of complementarity in quantum mechanics on the Bsc and right now I am doing a research on the philosophy of non linear science for the MSc thesis).

    I would really like to go on and do a PhD on this field. Do you have any suggestions regarding Universities, programs, or proffesors to contact?

    Thank you in advance!

    • Thanks for your interest. Some universities with good programs are mentioned in the post. Where to go for a PhD is a very personal decision, though, depending on your scientific interests, financial boundary conditions, and connections to potential supervisors. A big-name university always looks good on the CV, of course, I but I would first and foremost suggest getting in touch with the professors whose work and style you find inspiring.

  5. Hi Dustin,I am currently a bachelors student in Physics.I have always been interested in the philosophical aspects of physics,and would like to do my academical training in this field.Your blog is very helpful in this case but more questions emerge in my head as i try to decide which path i should move on.Is undergraduate-level knowledge of physics enough for doing research on foundations or should i pursue a Masters degree to deepen my knowledge first?
    And another question is that grad schools often require a 15-20 pages of philosophy paper sample for admissions.I have no idea about how to write one.My uni offers a lecture on philosophical writing but its only for philosophy majors.I cant ask a prof to mentor me cause theyre usually too busy with their work,i only have a study guide sent by a prof.How did you improv yourself on this,what do you suggest?

    • Hi Sena, a bachelor in physics is a pretty good foundation that will allow you to study specific topics in greater detail if required for your philosophical work. A Master’s degree in physics is not a requirement. If you want to transition into philosophy, it’s up to you if you want to do it right away or do a Master’s in physics and then a PhD in philosophy or even try to get a double-degree.

      I think the best way to get into philosophical writing is to read good philosophical papers and books. And then, when you got a feel for the style and methodology, just try to write something yourself, if only as an exercise. I personally also got the chance to collaborate with professional philosophers on a philosophical publication while I was still working in mathematical physics. That was definitely a helpful experience though I’m not sure how easy it is to replicate.

  6. Hi,this was a very helpful post . I will finish my masters in physics next year and i wanted to know if Phd programs in philosophy departments(foundations of physics) require an undergraduate degree in philosophy . Can I transition to philosophy straight ahead ? I have informal training in philosophy and i am mostly self taught.

    • I am doing a PhD in philosophy of physics without holding a prior degree in philosophy. It’s definitely possible and not even that uncommon. Of course, it’s ultimately up to the university (or your supervisor) if they will accept you.

  7. Hello,

    Thank you so much for the wonderful post.

    I am wondering if one can be a philosopher of physics (or develop an expertise in philosophy of physics as either AOS or AOC) without a proper degree in physics. That is, if one doesn’t have both philosophy and physics degree in one’s undergrad, then can one do philosophy of physics?

    I guess I am asking this for myself. Recently, I have been interested in philosophy of space and time in particular, and although I do have some background in physics (I took some courses in physics courses as an ex-physics major) I won’t graduate with a major in physics, and it’s too late now to go back and get a physics major.

    Again, thank you for the wonderful post. And I look forward to your reply.

    • Sure, most philosophers of physics (including some of the best) don’t hold a formal degree in physics but are self-taught or have attended some classes on the side as you did. But physics (and mathematics) are pretty hard, of course, so it takes a lot of work and dedication.

  8. Hi Dustin
    firstly, thank you so much for this post it was very helpful.
    acknowledging your expertise in the field, i was wondering if maybe you could help me delineate my academic career in this field .
    i’m currently first year philosophy undergrad student with a good background in math and physics (from school) ,and i happen to find philosophy of physics very intriguing.
    I still have a fair amount of credits worth of electives before i graduate , my question for you is, what sort of physics courses should i register for ,alongside my degree in philosophy, which will be most relevant to a degree in this field?
    Much appreciated,
    P.S. thank you so much for the list of recommended readings they seem very interesting and helpful.

    • Hi, I’m glad you found the post helpful!

      It’s really hard to say which physics courses you should attend… I think it depends on how strong your background is from school, how good the particular lectures are at your university (maybe you can ask around which lecturers are recommended), how well you learn from lectures as opposed to books, and which fields of physics you’re especially interested in.

      In general, I’d say that a solid physics background should include at least some knowledge of classical mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, and relativity. But this doesn’t mean that you have to attend a class on each of these subjects (which would almost amount to a bachelor’s curriculum, I suppose). You can always learn more in self-study and on a need-to-know basis, so to speak.

      What’s certainly helpful is not being afraid of abstract mathematics. So depending on how much you already did in school, a course on basic calculus and/or linear algebra could be even more helpful.

  9. I wonder if it would make sense to add University of Michigan and University of Southern California for USA, and perhaps Perimeter Institute for Canada (for physicists inclined towards foundations research).

    • Thanks for mentioning it, those are certainly great institutions. I just don’t have any personal experience or contact with them and have listed only programs of which I have first-hand knowledge (or at least close to that).

  10. Hello sir.
    Thank-you so much for this wonderful and informative post. I have B.Sc. in physics and currently I am doing masters in physics. I have been attending various programs and short schools on Astronomy and Astrophysics. But with the passage of time I am finding myself in dilemma in deciding my interest. I am very passionate to go into academia. As the crucial step for this is to hold a PhD, I want to enter into a research area where I could actually enjoy the work. I also love to know more about spirituality. I find my interest in knowing the truths of nature and how the universe influences us that we are unaware of. what is consciousness ? How can we use the physics, not for debating and showing the superiority of science but for linking different perspectives to eventually end up revealing the truth. I want to decide where exactly my interest lies. And even if I can decide, will it be easy to get into PhD under any professor. Could you suggest me something regarding this?

    • Hi, I’m glad that you found the post helpful! From what you’re saying, I wonder if your main interest would really lie in philosophy of physics or maybe something else, like the philosophy of mind or general epistemology or even philosophy of religion. Of course, it is possible to combine all of them on some level, and your physics background would be an asset in any case. I’m not sure if I can be of much help, but I guess my advice would be to read some books by contemporary philosophers until you find something (or someone) that resonates with you. Then it’s easier to find out who is working on similar topics.

      But although it’s nice to think big, you won’t be able to address the deepest mysteries of the universe all at once. For a realistic PhD project, you will have to narrow your focus down a little bit.

  11. Hello Dustin..
    When I was read your post, I felt myself between your words, so thank you for this helpful post.
    I studied fundamental Physics in the University, in first year I found physics very helpful for my questions, but after years of reading on books and research paper, my questions increased very fast and been huge, and academic system (University) couldn’t answer for my inner questions, because university educated us physics technically and ignored concepts side of physics, that what I interested , for example Heisenberg’s Uncertainty and Einestein’s Relativity and Double Slits Experiment ….etc, so I quit the university (I know this stupid), for following my inner questions by self-study, so philosophy of physics is what I need, but my path is so long, so if you have some advice to me, to engage to philosophy of physics.

    • Hi Omar, I definitely sympathize with your situation, but I’m not exactly sure how I could help you. There are many great books, publically accessible research papers, and even decent online sources out there. Unfortunately, there are also many bad ones, and if you’re on your own, there’s a certain risk of getting lost. Once you start with one good source on your topic interest (I made some recommendations in the post), you see what other authors and publications it references and can go on from there. But to be frank: also in philosophy, it’s almost impossible to do professional research without some formal training and academic affiliation, unless you’re one of the rare autodidactic geniuses. It may be more realistic to pursue it as a “hobby”, i.e., for your own curiosity and the love of wisdom. In the end, that’s what philosophy is (literally) about.

  12. Hey Dustin,

    Thank you for your post. I obtained a BS in physics/minor in philosophy and now I am currently in my first year Masters for philosophy. I plan to pursue a PhD in philosophy of physics. This summer, I participated in Upitt’s summer philosophy program and found that the topics in philosophy of science are more of what I wanted out of academic investigation that problem-solving based physics did not provide. My concern is personal, in that I did not do the best in regards to passing my classes and getting a high GPA in undergraduate. Though I did recieved the bachelors, I am concerned that I have not studied the best as I could have and my confidence for the physics and mathematical aspects involved in pursuing philosophy of physics is a little shaky. Though I realize that there are less math intense areas, like realism and instrumentalism, I want to make sure my bases are covered for whatever area I decide to commit to.

    I was considering getting another masters in “Foundations of Physics” or any other philofphysics MA program as to sort of play catch-up before pursing a PhD. Alternatively, I was thinking I could just study for the physics GRE or reteach myself physics in my own time (This alternative is tough because I am currently a masters student and finding time is difficult: classes, papers due, and teaching a undergraduate course).

    Any advice about what to do would be great!

    • Hi, sorry for the late response. I personally don’t think a MA in philosophy of physics – in addition to one in general philosophy – makes sense. Better try to catch some physics lectures on the side, write your master thesis on a physics-related topic, and then look for a philosophy of science/physics program for your PhD. And don’t worry too much: Not everybody starting a PhD in philosophy of physics comes with a strong background in maths and physics – although it’s certainly a plus.

  13. Hello. thank you so much for your helpful information.
    I have a B.A in psychology. Do you think getting M.A in philosophy of science + self-study of physics, will be enough preparation to start a M.A in philosophy of physics or I should first get a relevant bachelor’s degree ?

    • Hi, it’s really up to you. I think a B.A. in physics would be a plus, but so is graduating at a younger age. With enough dedication, you can acquire a decent background in physics during your graduate studies. By the way, there is also something like the philosophy of psychology/psychiatry if you want to stay closer to your bachelor’s studies. And philosophy of mind, of course, where a background in psychology can be useful.

  14. Is it possible to apply to Phil of Physics graduate programs without a degree in Philosophy? I have the option of studying Physics and Philosophy, but I think I may do Physics with a minor in Philosophy, so as to keep my options open. What would you recommend?

    • Yes, it’s possible – at least in general. And I think it’s a good idea to major in physics first. To my mind, that should be a plus. Of course, it’s up to the universities, whom they accept. So if you have a specific graduate program in mind, you could try to check with them directly.

  15. Hello. thank you so much for your helpful informations.
    I have a Master’s degree with honors in Astrophysics. (I studied in La Sapienza university of Rome). I’d like to apply for a PhD in philosophy of physics and, in particular, philosophy of Cosmology.
    Is there a search engine to find a phD in this research areas?
    Do you know any research groups interested in it?
    Thank You.

  16. First of all thanks for your article. This was exactly what I was looking for. I am currently graduating in a philosophy bachelor. I am writing my thesis on presentism and the idea of a specious present. I pursue a carreer in philosophy of physics after doing my master. However my only background is algebra at high school. I saw in one of your answers that you recommend to self-study in linear algebra and calculus. What would you say is, besides those two topics, the necessary mathematical background you need to be able to at least understand every concept that is discussed in the philosophy of physics. So in a way that it is at least possible to learn what the math stands for in the proofs of the theorems (as you say on a need to know basis). I would prefer to do a whole bachelor in physics, but that is just not possible for financial reasons.
    If I do my master next year I have two years to study math on my own. If I get the option to do a PhD then at least in that 4 year timespan I can try to spend time on understanding the topics that I need to understand. However because those 2 years are not that long, how can I efficiently create a path for myself to get to where I want? I dont mind spending a lot of time practising, I do however need some clarity because it is really hard to navigate your way through this stuff without already having a background in math.

  17. Hey Dustin,

    I am a first-year UG student and will major in Physics eventually. I accidentally came across this post; after reading it, I don’t feel alone anymore & thus, I am really grateful to you for creating this post.

    I have discussed some questions with a few of my seniors in their senior year, and they certainly felt that I ask “good” questions.
    I try to understand the underlying workings of math in physics and get to the heart of the matter, which is hardly focussed upon in Physics education today, I feel. That is why I have recently developed a liking for studying from old classic books, and recently I somehow came across this book by Ernst Mach – “The Science of Mechanics”.

    Just going through the first few pages, Ernst Mach became my instant hero as he was raising the very same questions in those topics that I had inquired and tried to work upon earlier. He seems to be the epitome of what I imagine my future self to be. I don’t know if I should call it Philosophy of Physics or not, but a huge part of what I try to do is demystifying the math to reveal the key substance.
    Having said that, I do like Philosophy of Physics for its own sake too, but it’s more of a complementary hobby for me.

    I have been worried about my career ahead as I am really ambitious but my approach is slightly different from what students are generally expected to excel in, i.e., problem-solving, as far as I can tell. Due to my approach’s inherent gradual nature, it takes up most of my time, and I end up compromising on the breadth of topics covered and thus lag behind in the course.

    Hence, I repeatedly keep finding myself in this dilemma. I am decent in problem-solving and can certainly choose to focus and improve on it (and other such aspects) further, but that’s not what I am doing Physics for. It doesn’t satisfy my soul if I am essentially just skimming over the topics, which is largely the way it’s being taught. Sure, one could solve tough problems but hardly appreciate the beauty and subtleties of Physics.

    I am really confused and worried, as I just mentioned. I am not aware of any opportunities for grad school that goes well with my interests. Having said that, I acknowledge that my understanding and extent of knowledge of the programs, including Philosophy of Physics, Theoretical Physics, etc., and what they entail is naive and minimal at this point.

    If you have any relevant advice to offer, it will be immensely helpful.
    Thank you

  18. This is a very helpful post and I think the main problem with this field is that it’s not talked about a lot so people don’t have enough knowledge about it. I really appreciate the university course list. It is indeed very helpful. I have just graduated with an integrated master’s in Phyiscs with astrophysics from the University of Manchester and I am very much interested in philosophy of Phyiscs focusing more towards cosmology. However, I am a little lost with the implications in the professional world. What can I do with this degree? What jobs can I do? What topic can I do research on? I mean is it easy to find people working on this topic? Or where can I find them? Which kind of research institutes can I work in? It would be really helpful if you could answer these questions?

    Also what are your further goals in the professional world after completing your degree?

    • With a background in physics and philosophy, you could do a lot of jobs, from teaching to science journalism, to business consulting, to research and development in the industry, etc. In general, companies won’t hire you to do astrophysics or cosmology but because they value the skillset that you bring to the table. If you want to stay in academia and do basic research, it’s a rocky road (but one that I’m pursuing). The next step would be to do a Ph.D., then look for a postdoc or tenure-track position, and ultimately aim for a tenured position at a university (of which there aren’t many). Philosophy of cosmology is not a huge field, but definitely a thing. With a simple google search, you can find several publications and people working on it.

  19. Hello

    I am a grad student in philosophy, my bachelors degree was physics. I am interested in philosophy of physics, especially in philosophy of cosmology and I want to ask two questions.

    First, do you think philosophy of physics have a practical value to physicist or anyone else? I want to study it, but if philosophers just study it for curiosity or other reasons unrelated to practice of physics, then I feel like studying physics and doing philosophy indepedently might be better.

    Second, what are current topics in philosophy of physics that I can work on as a master student? I am especially want to work on philosophy of cosmology or philosopphical probems related the empirical results of physics (like boltzmann brain problem).


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